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Table 1

Synthesized theoretical framework of undercounting and overcounting

Dimension Factor Reduces undercounting through… Scholarly work sorted by year
1) Personal a) Social Capital …social trust and cooperative attitude  Putnam (1995); Heyneman, (2000); Letki (2006); Brick and Williams (2013)
b) Social Exchange …non-economic exchanges of intangible social satisfaction Homans (1958); Dillman et al. (2009)
2) Geographical c) Easiness-to-reach …easy access to people intended to be approached Martin and de la Puente (1993); Martin (2007) 
d) Accuracy in MAF …including all households for accurate planning and implementation of the Census Mahler (1993); Kissam (2017); Kissam et al. (2018)
3) Census features e) Marketing strategies …encouragement of people to participate West and Fein (1990); Bates (2017)
f) Int/tech accessibility …easing people’s participation West and Robinson (1999); Sinclair et al. (2012); Olson et al. (2021) 

Note: A deeper examination of surveys’ nonresponse and undercounts in the U.S. Census is presented by Tourangeau and Plewes (2013) and (O’Hare, 2019).